Sunday, August 26, 2007


Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as yearly leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color surrounded by a pod. Pulses being used for food and animal feed.

The term pulses, as used by the FAO, are kept for crops harvested solely for the dry grain. This therefore excludes green beans and green peas, which are measured vegetable crops. Also barred crops which are mainly grown for oil extraction oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts, and crops which are used exclusively for sowing (clovers, alfalfa).

Pulses are main food crops due to their high protein and necessary amino acid content. Like many leguminous crops, pulses play a key role in crop turning round due to their capability to fix nitrogen.

Sunday, August 19, 2007


Denim, in American usage since the late eighteenth century, shows a rough cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- "double") or more warp fibers, producing the memorable diagonal ribbing specialized on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim was conventionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue "jeans," though "jean" then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the up to date use of jean comes from the French word for Genoa, Italy (Genes), from which the initial denim trousers were made.

Sunday, August 12, 2007


The first electric cars were built in the early 1880s shortly before interior combustion powered cars appeared. For a period of time electrics were measured superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compare to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This supreme benefit was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages:
1) Long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel against weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could competitor internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and enhanced batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not need such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs are able to speed up from 0-60 mph (96 km/hour) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a variety of 250 miles (400 km) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge. Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at approximately 135 mpg.

Monday, August 06, 2007

The computer

A computer is a machine for manipulate data according to a list of commands known as a program. Computers are tremendously adaptable. In fact, they are universal information-processing machines. According to the Church–Turing theory, a computer with a positive minimum entrance capability is in principle capable of performing the responsibilities of any other computer. Therefore, computers with capability ranging from those of a personal digital supporter to a supercomputer may all achieve the same tasks, as long as time and memory capacity are not consideration. Therefore, the same computer design may be modified for tasks ranging from doling out company payrolls to controlling unmanned spaceflights. Due to technical progression, modern electronic computers are exponentially more capable than those of preceding generations. Computers take plentiful physical forms. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, while whole modern embedded computers may be lesser than a deck of playing cards. Even today, huge computing conveniences still exist for focused scientific computation and for the transaction processing necessities of large organizations. Smaller computers designed for personage use are called personal computers. Along with its convenient equivalent, the laptop computer, the personal computer is the ubiquitous in order processing and communication tool, and is typically what is meant by "a computer".

However, the most general form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are usually comparatively simple and physically small computers used to control one more device. They may control equipment from fighter aircraft to industrial robots to digital cameras. In the beginning, the term "computer" referred to a person who performed numerical calculations, frequently with the aid of a mechanical calculating device or analog computer. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the presented loom designs that used a series of punched paper cards as a program to weave involved patterns. The resulting Jacquard loom is not considered a true computer but it was an essential step in the growth of modern digital computers.