Sunday, December 30, 2007

Croydon Airport

Croydon Airport is in south London on the restrictions of the London Boroughs of Croydon and Sutton. It was once the main airport for London, previous to it was replaced by Northolt Aerodrome, London Heathrow Airport and London Gatwick Airport.. Beddingt on Aerodrome, one of a numeral of small airfields around London which had been created for protection against the Zeppelin raids in about May 1915, and Waddon Aerodrome of 1918, a test-flight aerodrome adjoining National Aircraft Factory No1. At the end of that war, the two airfields were shared into London's official airport as the gateway for all international flights to and from the capital. Croydon Aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920, in the mid 1920s, the landing field was extended, some adjacent roads being permanently closed to allow heavier airliners to land and depart safely. A new complex of buildings was constructed adjoining Purley Way, together with the first purpose-designed air terminal in the world, the Aerodrome Hotel and extensive hangars, all opening on 2 May 1928. The terminal building, the booking hall within it with its colonnade balustraded in the geometrical design typical of the period, and the Aerodrome hotel were all built in the Art Deco style of the 1920s and 1930s.

Sunday, December 23, 2007

Qantas Empire Airways

In Australia in 1934 Imperial and Qantas (Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd) created Qantas Empire Airways Limited to extended services in Southeast Asia. But it was not until 1937 with the Short Empire flying boats that majestic could offer an 'all air' service from Southampton to the Empire. The journey to the Cape consisted of flights to Marseille, Rome, Brindisi, Athens, Alexandria, Khartoum, Port Bell, Kisumu and beyond by land-based craft to Nairobi, Mbeya and eventually Cape Town. Survey flights were also completed across the Atlantic and to New Zealand. By mid-1937 Imperial had completed its thousandth service to the Empire. Speed Wings Over the World, statue on a portal above the Empire Terminal's main entrance; by Eric Broadbent The Empire Air Mail Program began in July 1937, delivering anyplace for 1½ d./oz. By mid-1938 a hundred tons of mail had been delivered to India and a related amount to Africa. In the same year, construction was started on the Empire Terminal, intended by A. Lakeman and with a statue by Eric Broadbent, Speed Wings Over the World gracing the entrance above the main entrance. The terminal provided train associations to flying boats at Southampton and to the since closed Croydon Airport. The terminal operated as recently as 1980. Imperial Airways Speedbird logoCompared to extra operators it was lagging behind in Europe and it was suggested that all European operations be handed over to British Airways Ltd (founded in 1935) which had more contemporary aircraft and better organization. However in November 1939 both Imperial and British Airways Ltd were compound into a new state-owned national carrier: British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC). The new carrier adopted the Imperial Speedbird logo, which has evolved into the current British Airways Speedmarque, and the term continues to be used as BA's call sign.

Sunday, December 16, 2007

Commercial Flight

The first commercial flight was in April 1924, when a on a daily basis London-Paris service was opened. Additional services to other European destinations were started all the way through the summer. The first fresh airliner was commissioned by Imperial Airways in November 1924. In the first year of process the company carried 11,395 passengers and 212,380 letters. The extension of service to the British Empire was not begun until 1927 when, with the adding of six new aircraft, a service was instituted from Cairo to Basra. But the first service from London for Karachi did not start until 1929 using recently purchased Short S.8 Calcutta flying boats, even then the passengers were transported by train from Paris to the Mediterranean where the Short flying boats were. In February 1931 a weekly service stuck between London and Tanganyika was started as part of the proposed route to Cape Town and in April an experimental London-Australia air mail flight took place; the mail was transferred at the Netherlands East Indies, and took 26 days in total to reach Sydney. The buy of the 8 Handley Page 42 four-engined airliners boosted the range of services, in 1932 the service to Africa was extended to Cape Town.

Tuesday, December 11, 2007

Intelligence, IQ, and g

Intelligence, IQ, and g are very different. Intelligence is the term used in ordinary discourse to refer to cognitive ability.

However, it is usually regarded as too imprecise to be useful for a scientific treatment of the subject. The intelligence quotient (IQ) is an index calculated from the scores on analysis items judged by experts to encompass the abilities coverd by the term intelligence.

IQ measures a multidimensional magnitude: it is an amalgam of dissimilar kinds of abilities, the proportions of which may differ between IQ tests.

The dimensionality of IQ scores can be premeditated by factor analysis, which reveals a single dominant factor underlying the scores on all IQ tests.

This factor, which is a hypothetical construct, is called g. Variation in g corresponds very much to the intuitive notion of intelligence, and thus g is sometimes called general cognitive ability or general intelligence.

Sunday, November 25, 2007

Privatisation - British Airways

Sir John King, later Lord King, was selected as Chairman in 1981 with the mission of preparing the airline for privatisation.When King knew Colin Marshall as CEO in 1983. King was credited with turning just about the loss-making giant into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world, boldly claiming to be "The World's Favourite Airline", while many other large airlines struggled. The airline's flotilla and route map were overhauled in the early years of King's tenure, with brand and advertising experts being recruited to overhaul the airline's image. Over 23,000 jobs were shed in the early 1980s, though King managed the extensive trick of boosting staff morale and modernise operations at the same time. Lord King also recognised the importance of Concorde to the company's business plan, and used the supersonic airliner to win business customers by guaranteeing a certain number of Concorde upgrades in return for corporate accounts with BA.

The flag carrier was privatised and floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987 by the traditional government, with the initial share offering being 11 times oversubscribed. In April 1988 British Airways effected the contentious takeover of Britain's second-force airline British Caledonian, and in 1992 absorbed Gatwick-based carrier Dan-Air.

Sunday, November 18, 2007

British Airways

British Airways is the major airline of the United Kingdom. It is also one of the biggest airlines in the world, with more flights from Europe across the Atlantic than any other operator. Its main hubs are London Heathrow and London Gatwick, with wide-reaching European and conjugal shorthaul networks, including smaller hubs at other UK airports including Manchester, from which some longer-haul flights are also operated.

The airline's origins go back to the birth of civil aviation and the original days after the First World War. On 25 August 1919 its predecessor company, Aircraft Transport and Travel, launched the world's first daily international scheduled air service, between London and Paris. On 31 March 1924, Britain's four hatchling airlines - Instone, Handley Page, Daimler Airways and British Air Marine Navigation - merged to form Imperial Airways, which developed its Empire routes to Australia and Africa.

Sunday, November 11, 2007

Storage of Vegetables

Many root and non-root vegetables that produce underground can be stored through winter in a root cellar or additional similarly cool, dark and dry place to prevent mold, greening and sprouting. Care should be taken in thoughtful the properties and vulnerabilities of the particular roots to be stored. These vegetables can final through to early spring and be nearly as nutritious as when fresh.

During storage, abundant vegetables lose moisture and vitamin C degrades rapidly. They should be stored for as small a time as possible in a cool place, in a container or plastic bag.

Sunday, November 04, 2007

Colours of Vegetables

The green color of leafy vegetables is due to the existence of the green pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is pretentious by pH and changes to olive green in acid conditions, and bright green in alkaline conditions. Some of the acids are released in steam during cooking, mainly if cooked without a wrap.

The yellow/orange colors of fruits and vegetables are payable to the presence of carotenoids, which are also affected by normal cooking processes or changes in pH.

The red/blue coloring of some fruits and vegetables (e.g. blackberries and red cabbage) are due to anthocyanins, which are sensitive to changes in pH. When pH is neutral, the pigments are purple, when acidic, red, and when alkaline, blue. These pigments are very water soluble.

Sunday, October 28, 2007

In the diet of Vegetables

Vegetables are eaten in a multiplicity of ways as part of main meals and as snacks. The nutrient content of dissimilar types varies considerably. With the exclusion of pulses, vegetables provide little protein and fat. Vegetables contain water soluble vitamins like vitamin B and vitamin C, fat-soluble vitamins together with vitamin A and vitamin D, and also contain carbohydrates and minerals and fiber. Among the nutrients vegetables may have contain antioxidants, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticarcinogenic nutrients. Also, decaying or rotting vegetables (plant matter in general) may have compact nutrients, but are often full of probiotic bacteria.

Sunday, October 21, 2007

Etymology of Vegetable

Vegetable is also used as a legendary term for any plant: vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom. It comes from Latin vegetabilis (animated) and from vegetare (enliven), which is derivative from vegetus (active), in reference to the process of a plant growing. This in turn derives from the Proto-Indo-European base , which is also the source of the English wake, meaning "not sleep". The declaration vegetable was earliest recorded in print in English in the 14th century. The meaning of "plant grown for food" was not recognized until the 18th century.

Monday, October 15, 2007

Fruit, vegetable

Since “vegetable” is not a botanical term, there is no negation in referring to a plant part as a fruit while also being considered a vegetable (see diagram). Given this general rule of thumb, vegetables can also embrace leaves (lettuce), stems (asparagus), roots (carrots), flowers (broccoli), bulbs (garlic), seeds (peas and beans) and botanical fruits such as cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, and capsicums (bell peppers). Botanically, fruits are reproductive organs (ripened ovaries containing one or many seeds), while vegetables are vegetative organs which keep up the plant.

The question "is it a fruit, or is it a vegetable?" has even found its way into the United States Supreme Court, which ruled generally in Nix v. Hedden, 1893, that a tomato is a vegetable for the purposes of 1883 Tariff Act, even though botanically, a tomato is a fruit.
Commercial production of vegetables is a division of horticulture called olericulture

Monday, October 08, 2007


Vegetable is a term which generally refers to an suitable for eating part of a plant. The meaning is traditional rather than scientific and is somewhat arbitrary and subjective. All parts of herbaceous plants eaten as food by humans, whole or in piece, are normally considered vegetables. Mushrooms, though belonging to the biological kingdom fungi, are also generally considered vegetables. In general, vegetables are thought of as being spicy, and not sweet, although there are many exceptions. Nuts, grains, herbs, spices and cookery fruits are usually not considered vegetables.

Tuesday, October 02, 2007

Postal Marking

A postal marking is any kind of marginal note applied to a letter by a postal service. The most frequent types are postmarks and cancellations; almost every letter will have those, less common types include forward addresses, routing annotations, warnings, postage due notices and explanations, such as for smashed or delayed mail. A key part of postal history is the credit of postal markings, their purpose, and period of use.

Service marks give in sequence to the sender, recipient, or another post office. Advice marks notify about forwarding, miss ending, letters received in bad condition, letters received too late for delivery by a certain time, or the reason for a delay in mail delivery. Dead letter offices would use a variety of markings to keep track of their progress in finding the addressee, such as a notation that the letter had been advertise in the local newspaper. The tracking process for register mail may entail many marks and notations.

Shortly after the eruption of the American Civil War, the Northern authorities affirmed the existing postage stamps invalid and issued new types. Letters using the demonetized stamps received a marking "OLD STAMPS NOT RECOGNIZED", an accidentally humorous comment much prized by collectors today.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome

Some users of mobile handsets have reported feeling several unspecific symptoms during and after its use, such as flaming and tingling feelings in the skin of the head and extremities, fatigue, sleep disturbances, dizziness, loss of mental attention, reaction times and memory retentiveness, headaches, malaise, tachycardia and disturbances of the digestive system. Some researchers, implying a causal relationship, have named this syndrome as a new diagnostic entity, EHS or ES. The World Health Organization prefers to name it “idiopathic environmental intolerance", in order to avoid the insinuation of causation.

Sunday, September 16, 2007

Salwar kameez

Salwar kameez is also spelled shalwar kameez and shalwar qamiz is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. It is now and then known as Punjabi suit due to its popularity in the Punjab region and the Pathani suit, due to the fact that the Pathans of Kabul introduce the dress to the rest of South Asia.

It is loose pajama like trousers the legs are wide at the top and narrow at the bottom,
The kameez is a long shirt or tunic. The part seams known as the chaak are left open below the waist-line, which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. In Afghanistan and Pakistan, it is the favored garment of both sexes. In Bangladesh and India, it is most normally a woman's garment. Though the majority of Indian women wear traditional clothing, the men in India can be found in more conservative western clothing. Shalwar kameez is the traditional dress worn by a variety of peoples of south-central Asia. In India and Pakistan it is a particularly popular style of dress. Shalwar or Salwar is a short loose or parallel trouser.

Sunday, September 09, 2007

Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië; Indonesian: Hindia-Belanda) was created from the nationalized colonies of the former Dutch East India Company that came under administration of the Netherlands throughout the nineteenth century, and now form modern-day Indonesia.

Monday, September 03, 2007


Pollution is the opening of pollutants chemical substances, noise, heat, light, energy and others into the environments which effect in deleterious effects of such a nature as to cause danger to human health, harm living resources and ecosystems, and impair or interfere with amenities and other legitimate uses of the environment Pollution is formed by vehicle which make the health spoil.

Sunday, August 26, 2007


Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as yearly leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color surrounded by a pod. Pulses being used for food and animal feed.

The term pulses, as used by the FAO, are kept for crops harvested solely for the dry grain. This therefore excludes green beans and green peas, which are measured vegetable crops. Also barred crops which are mainly grown for oil extraction oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts, and crops which are used exclusively for sowing (clovers, alfalfa).

Pulses are main food crops due to their high protein and necessary amino acid content. Like many leguminous crops, pulses play a key role in crop turning round due to their capability to fix nitrogen.

Sunday, August 19, 2007


Denim, in American usage since the late eighteenth century, shows a rough cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- "double") or more warp fibers, producing the memorable diagonal ribbing specialized on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim was conventionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue "jeans," though "jean" then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the up to date use of jean comes from the French word for Genoa, Italy (Genes), from which the initial denim trousers were made.

Sunday, August 12, 2007


The first electric cars were built in the early 1880s shortly before interior combustion powered cars appeared. For a period of time electrics were measured superior due to the silent nature of electric motors compare to the very loud noise of the gasoline engine. This supreme benefit was removed with Hiram Percy Maxim's invention of the muffler in 1897. Thereafter internal combustion powered cars had two critical advantages:
1) Long range and 2) high specific energy (far lower weight of petrol fuel against weight of batteries). The building of battery electric vehicles that could competitor internal combustion models had to wait for the introduction of modern semiconductor controls and enhanced batteries. Because they can deliver a high torque at low revolutions electric cars do not need such a complex drive train and transmission as internal combustion powered cars. Some post-2000 electric car designs are able to speed up from 0-60 mph (96 km/hour) in 4.0 seconds with a top speed around 130 mph (210 km/h). Others have a variety of 250 miles (400 km) on the EPA highway cycle requiring 3-1/2 hours to completely charge. Equivalent fuel efficiency to internal combustion is not well defined but some press reports give it at approximately 135 mpg.

Monday, August 06, 2007

The computer

A computer is a machine for manipulate data according to a list of commands known as a program. Computers are tremendously adaptable. In fact, they are universal information-processing machines. According to the Church–Turing theory, a computer with a positive minimum entrance capability is in principle capable of performing the responsibilities of any other computer. Therefore, computers with capability ranging from those of a personal digital supporter to a supercomputer may all achieve the same tasks, as long as time and memory capacity are not consideration. Therefore, the same computer design may be modified for tasks ranging from doling out company payrolls to controlling unmanned spaceflights. Due to technical progression, modern electronic computers are exponentially more capable than those of preceding generations. Computers take plentiful physical forms. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, while whole modern embedded computers may be lesser than a deck of playing cards. Even today, huge computing conveniences still exist for focused scientific computation and for the transaction processing necessities of large organizations. Smaller computers designed for personage use are called personal computers. Along with its convenient equivalent, the laptop computer, the personal computer is the ubiquitous in order processing and communication tool, and is typically what is meant by "a computer".

However, the most general form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are usually comparatively simple and physically small computers used to control one more device. They may control equipment from fighter aircraft to industrial robots to digital cameras. In the beginning, the term "computer" referred to a person who performed numerical calculations, frequently with the aid of a mechanical calculating device or analog computer. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the presented loom designs that used a series of punched paper cards as a program to weave involved patterns. The resulting Jacquard loom is not considered a true computer but it was an essential step in the growth of modern digital computers.

Sunday, July 29, 2007

Wireless Application Protocol

WAP is an open global standard for application that uses wireless communication. Its main application is to allow access to the internet from a mobile phone or PDA.

A WAP browser is to grant all of the fundamental services of a computer based web browser but cut down to function within the limits of a mobile phone. WAP is now the protocol used for the mainstream of the world's mobile internet sites, known as WAP sites. Presently the Japanese i-mode system is the only other major competing wireless data protocol.

Mobile internet sites, or WAP sites, are websites written in, or vigorously transformed to, WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser.

Before the introduction of WAP, service providers had enormously restricted opportunities to offer interactive data services.

Sunday, July 22, 2007


Fertilisation or fertilization also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy, is fusion of gametes to form a new organism of the same variety. In animals, the process involves a sperm fuse with an ovum, which finally leads to the development of an embryo. Depending on the animal species, the process can occur within the body of the female in interior fertilisation, or outside in the case of external fertilisation.

The entire process of development of new persons is called procreation, the act of species reproduction.

Sunday, July 15, 2007

Nonfood uses

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, different cultures have urbanized many different uses for various fruits that they do not depend on as being edible. Many dry fruits are used as streamer or in dried flower arrangements, such as unicorn plant, lotus, wheat, annual honesty and milkweed. Ornamental trees and shrubs are frequently refined for their colorful fruits, as well as holly, pyracantha, viburnum, skimmia, beautyberry and cotoneaster.

Fruits of opium poppy are the basis of the drugs opium and morphine. Osage orange fruits are used to keep away cockroaches. Bayberry fruits provide a wax frequently used to make candles. Many fruits give natural dyes, e.g. walnut, sumac, cherry and mulberry. Dried up gourds are used as streamer, water jugs, bird houses, musical instruments, cups and dishes. Pumpkins are imprinted into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur were the motivation for the invention of Velcro.

Coir is a fiber from the fruit of coconut that is used for doormats, brushes, mattresses, floortiles, sacking, lagging and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make memento heads, cups, bowls, musical instruments and bird houses.

Tuesday, July 10, 2007


In the Maori language, waka are Maori watercraft, usually canoes. Similar craft are encounter in Polynesia, with connected names such as vaka. Waka range is from small, lightweight canoes, such as waka tiwai used for fishing individuals, during very large waka taua, manned by up to eighty paddlers and up to fourty mtrs in length, large double-hulled canoes for oceanic voyaging.

Many waka are single-hulled vessels locate from hollowed tree trunks. Small waka consist of an only piece as large waka typically consist of some pieces jointed and lashed together. Some waka, mainly in the Chatham Islands, were not usual canoes but were constructed from raupo stalks. Ocean waka, Paddled could be in any size, but were usually propelled by sail. Waka taua are paddled to put across their mana.

Small efficient waka are commonly plain and simple. Superior canoes waka taua in testing are extremely carved. Waka taua are no longer used in fighting but frequently for official purposes.

Monday, June 18, 2007


A sampan (舢舨) is a comparatively flat bottomed Chinese wooden boat from twelve to fifteen feet long. Some sampans include a small shelter on board, and may be used as a permanent occupancy on inland waters. Sampans are normally used for fishing or transportation, in coastal area or river. It is unusual for a sampan to sail far from land as they do not have the means to survive rough weather conditions.

The word sampan literally means three planks in Cantonese language; it is derived from the words Sam (three) and pan (plank).

Sampans are still exploited by rural residents of Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam.

Sampans may be propelled by oars or may be fixed with outboard motors. These motors may be motorized by petrol. However, not all outboard motors are petrol powered (eg: electric motors used in a Malaysian firefly sanctuary, as petrol fumes are toxic to fireflies.)

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Pleasure craft

A pleasure craft is a boat used for individual leisure or sometimes sporting purpose. Typically such watercrafts are automatic and are used for holidays, for example on a river or canal. Enjoyment craft are normally kept at a marina. They are not essentially intended for speed. They may comprise accommodation for use while moored to the bank. Many narrow boats have been transformed into pleasure craft from their previous use for cargo transport on canals.

Tuesday, June 05, 2007


A dugout is a boat which is essentially a hollowed tree trunk; other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (Pl: monoxyla) is Greek -- mono (single) + xylon (tree) -- and is frequently used in classic Greek texts.
Dugouts are the oldest boats archaeologists contain found. Within Germany they are called Einbaum (English translation: One tree). Einbaum dug-out boat finds in Germany day back to the limestone Age. The length of bark and hide canoes, these dugout boats were used by American Indians. This is probably because they are made of enormous pieces of wood, which tend to preserve better than, e.g., bark canoes.
Construction of a dugout begins with the collection of a log of appropriate dimensions. Sufficient wood needed to be removed to make the vessel comparatively light in weight and buoyant, yet still strong enough to support the crew and cargo. Particular types of wood were often favorite based on their strength, durability, and weight. The shape of the boat is then fashioned to reduce drag, with sharp ends at the bow and stern.
First the bark is detached from the exterior. Before the exterior of metal tools, dugouts were then hollowed-out using controlled fires. The burnt wood was then detached using an adze. Another method using tools is to chop out parallel notches crossways the interior span of the wood, then split out and remove the wood from between the notches. Once hollowed out, the core was dressed and smoothed out with a knife or adze.
For traveling the rougher waters of the ocean, dugouts can be fitted with outriggers. One or two smaller logs are mounted parallel to the major hull by long poles.

Monday, May 28, 2007


Jet-Ski is the brand name of personal watercraft (PWC) affected by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd... The name, however, has become a widespread trademark for any type of personal watercraft. Jet Ski (or Jet Ski) can also specially refer to versions of PWCs with pivoting handle poles known as "stand-ups".
Jet Ski becomes leading colloquial term for stand-ups because, in 1973, Kawasaki was in charge for a limited production of stand-up models as intended by the recognized inventor of jet skis, Clayton Jacobsen II. In 1976, Kawasaki then began mass manufacture of the JS400-A. JS400s came with 400 cc two-stroke engines and hulls based upon the previous incomplete release models. It became the harbinger of the achievement Jet-Skis would see in the market up through the 1990s.
In 1986 Kawasaki broadened the world of Jet Skis by introduce a two person representation with lean-in "sport" style handling and a 650cc engine, dubbed the X-2. Then in 1989, they innovate their first two traveler "sit-down" model, the Tandem Sport (TS) with a step-through seating area.
In 2003, Kawasaki famous the Jet Ski brand by release a special 30th anniversary edition of its current stand-up model, the SX-R, which has seen a renewal of interest in stand-up jet skiing. The X-2 has also been efficient, based on the SX-R platform and re-released in Japan. Kawasaki continues to produce three models of sit-downs, as well as many four-stroke models.

Sunday, May 20, 2007


A hydroplane (or hydro, or thunderbolt) is a very specific type of motorboat used completely for racing.
One of the unique things about these boats is that they only use the water they're on for propulsion and steering (not for flotation)—when going at full speed they are primarily detained aloft by a principle of fluid dynamics known as "planning", with only a tiny portion of their hull actually touching the water.
The basic hull design of most hydroplanes has remained comparatively unchanged since the 1950s: two sponsors in front, one on either side of the bow; behind the wide bow, is a narrower, mostly rectangular section housing the driver, engine, and steering equipment. The aft part of the vessel is supported, in the water, by the lower half of the propeller, which is intended to operate semi-submerged at all times. The goal is to stay as little of the boat in contact with the water as possible, as water is much denser than air, and so exerts more drag on the vehicle than air does. Basically the boat 'flies' over the surface of the water rather than actually traveling through it.

Sunday, May 13, 2007


It is a customary Venetian rowing boat. Gondolas were for centuries the chief resources of transportation within Venice and still have a role in public transport, serving as traghetti (ferries) over major canals.
The gondola is propelled by an oarsman (the gondolier) who stands opposite the bow and pushes, rather than pulls, a single oar. Contrary to accepted belief the gondola is never poled, the waters of Venice being too deep for that. A gondola for passengers may have a small open cabin, for their defense next to sun or rain. A sumptuary law of Venice essential that gondolas should be decorated black, and they are frequently so painted now.
It is predictable that there were several thousand gondolas during the 18th century. There are a few hundred nowadays, most of which are for hire by tourists, while a few serve as traghetti or are in confidential ownership and use.

Monday, April 02, 2007

Air boats

Air boats, is also known as fan boats, and are flat-bottomed punts motorized by a propeller attached to an automobile or aircraft engine. The propeller has the typical shape and size of an airplane propeller and so requires a large metal cage to look after passengers and other users. The flat bottom allows air boats to find the way easily through shallow swamps and marshes as well as in canals, rivers and lakes; it can also be used on frozen lakes. The driver sits high on a platform to recover visibility and to permit spotting floating obstacles and animals in the alleyway of the boat. Steering is expert by swiveling vertical fins positioned in the propeller wash in the very rear of the airboat, so control is a function of current, wind, water depth and propeller thrust. Crabbing into the wind or current is necessary. The noise from the propeller and engine is quite loud; the greater part of the noise is produced by the propeller. Air boats vary in size from 18 person tour boats to trail boats accepted on a road trailer and suitable for two or three passengers.

Wednesday, March 28, 2007

A Business Plan
The following production plan has been formulated to obtain $200,000 in capital to launch a coffeehouse on the college grounds of Doane College named The Orange Cup. This arrangement will also serve as a formal sketch for the first five year's of operation. The financial forecasts show that this asset has significant pledge for the future.
The Orange Cup will provide for the Doane College Community a comfortable atmosphere while serve quality coffee at a reasonably priced with extraordinary service. An ample variety of coffee products including, gourmet coffees, latte, cappuccino, espresso, and iced coffee, will be offered at The Orange Cup. In addition, The Orange Cup will recommend juice, pop, and bottled water, hot cocoa, hot cider, and tea.

The marking plan for The Orange Cup is to attract students and staff to the coffeehouse to continue in a relaxed atmosphere, or for those customers with excited schedules, the expediency of our products.

Tuesday, March 20, 2007

A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn means of transportation. In Latin they say biga is a two-horse chariot, and quadriga is a four-horse chariot. It was used for very old warfare throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages, and constant to be used for travel, processions and in games after it had been superseded militarily. Early forms may also have had four wheels, even though these are not usually referred to as chariots. The serious creation that allowed the construction of light, horse-drawn chariots for use in battle was the spoked wheel. In these times, most horses could not support the weight of a man in battle; the unique wild horse was a large pony in size. Chariots were efficient in war only on fairly flat, open terrain. As horses were slowly bred to be larger and stronger, chariots gave way to cavalry. The earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca. 2000 BC and their usage peaked approximately 1300 BC (see Battle of Kadesh). Chariot races sustained to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century. In modern warfare, the planned role of the chariot is played by the tank or the armored personnel carrier. In World War I, just before the opening of the first tanks, motorcycles with machine-guns mounted on a sidecar and armoured cars constitute mechanized versions of the chariot. It might be said that the Russian tachanka for a short time re-introduced horse-drawn chariots, armed with machine-guns but these were much more a light version of the horse artillery which had been a feature of European battlefields for well over a hundred years.

Sunday, January 21, 2007

Mausoleum of Maussollos

In 377 BC, Halicarnassus was capital of a small kingdom along the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia. It was in that year the ruler of this land, Hecatomnus of Mylasa, died and left control of the kingdom to his son, Mausolus. Hecatomnus, a local satrap to the Persians, had been ambitious and had taken control of several of the neighboring cities and districts. Next to Mausolus and Artemisia he had several other sons and daughters: Ada, Idrieus, and Pixodarus. Mausolus in his time extended the territory even further so that it finally included most of southwestern Asia Minor. Maussollos, with his queen and sister Artemisia, ruled over Halicarnassus and the surrounding territory for 24 years. Maussollos, though he was descended from local people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life and government. He founded many cities of Greek design along the coast and encouraged Greek democratic traditions.

Maussollos decided to build a new capital, a city as hard to capture as it was magnificent to look at. He chose the town Halicarnassus. If Mausolus' ships blocked a small channel, they could keep all enemy warships out. He started making Halicarnassus a fit capital for a warrior prince. His workmen deepened the city's harbor and used the dredged up sand to make protecting arms in front of the channel.

Monday, January 08, 2007

Fraternal twins

Fraternal twins usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are therefore also known as dizygotic as well as "biovular" twins. When two eggs are independently fertilized by two different sperm cells, fraternal twins result.

Dizygotic twins, like any other siblings, have a very small chance of having the exact same chromosome profile, but most likely have a number of different chromosomes that distinguish them. Like any other siblings, fraternal twins may look very similar, particularly given that they are the same age. However, fraternal twins may also look very different from each other. They may be a different sex or the same sex. Mixed-race twins, or twins born to parents of mixed racial origin, can vary considerably in their skin colouration and other features.

Monday, January 01, 2007

Cellular differentiation

Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a "type". The morphology of a cell may change considerably during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions.

A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. These cells are called stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that is able to distinguish into all cell types is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants, many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques.

In most multicellular organisms, not all cells are alike. For example, cells that make up the human skin are different from cells that make up the inner organs. Yet, all of the different cell types in the human body are all derived from a single fertilized egg cell through differentiation.